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Holly Lassila, DrPH, MSEd, MPH, RPh

Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women

2016 12 28 10 12 46The American Heart Association recently released a scientific statement concerning Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women.1 Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of death in women in the United States and globally and of the 2.7 million women with a history of an (myocardial infarction) MI, more than 53,000 have died of an MI, and an estimated 262,000 were hospitalized for AMI and unstable angina. The differences in the clinical presentation between men and women have consequences for timely identification of symptoms, appropriate triage, diagnostic testing and treatment. Compared with men women are more likely to have pain in the upper back, arm, neck, and jaw as well as unusual fatigue, flu-like symptoms, dyspnea, indigestion, nausea/vomiting, palpitations, weakness, and a sense of dread and anxiety feeling.

Mehta LS, et al reported the top ten things to know about acute myocardial infarction in women:

1. Although there has been a reduction in cardiovascular mortality death in women in the US, there has not been a substantial decline in acute MI event rates or MI deaths in young women. 

2. Compared with older women, younger women are trending with worse risk factor profiles and higher mortality.

3. Plaque characteristics differ for women, and recent data have suggested a greater role of microvascular disease in the pathophysiology of coronary events among women even though epicardial coronary artery atherosclerotic disease remains the basic cause of acute MI in both men and women.

4. Date from autopsy studies have shown that women have an increased prevalence of plaque erosion compared to men, and that MI without obstruction coronary artery disease (CAD) is more common at younger ages and among women.

5. Any young woman who presents with an acute coronary syndrome without typical atherosclerotic risk factors should be suspected of having spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). This is a very rare condition and occurs more frequently in women. The clinical presentation of SCAD can be unstable angina, MI, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death.

6. Recent evidence suggests that depression in women is a powerful predictor of early-onset MI, showing a strong association with MI and cardiac death in young and middle-aged women than in men of similar ages. In the general population, depression is 2 times more prevalent in women than in men.

7. Women with risk factors such as high blood pressure and diabetes have an increased risk of heart attack compared to men.

8. As mentioned above, women are more likely to present with pain in the upper back, arm, neck, and jaw, as well as unusual fatigue, dyspnea, indigestion, nausea/ vomiting, palpitations, weakness, and a sense of dread, compared with men who present with central chest pain.

9. Research suggests that women are delayed in seeking treatment for acute MI compared to men. Reasons for the delay include living alone, interpreting symptoms as non urgent and temporary, consulting with a physician or family member and fear and embarrassment.

10. Women, compared to men, tend to be undertreated and are less likely to participate in cardiac rehabilitation after a heart attack.


 Submitted by: Holly Lassila, DrPH, MSEd, MPH, RPh; Hospice Clinical Pharmacist at Delta Care Rx


 References:
1. Mehta LS, et al; on behalf of the American Heart Association Cardiovascular Disease in Women and Special Populations Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, and Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Acute myocardial infarction in women: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association [published online ahead of print January 25, 2016]. Circulation. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000351.

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